From Mr. Rieger:Friedrich Paul Berg wrote: ↑Thu Oct 18, 2018 3:52 pmHitler moved into the non-Sudetenlands of Czechoslovakia o-n-l-y after the Invitation of Dr. Hacha and after the Poles had grabbed Teschen from the Czechs. Not a single shot was fired against the Germans when they moved in to establish the "Protectorate."
Did the western Allies from WW1 "keep their word" regarding self-determination in accord with Woodrow Wilson's Fourteen Points?
It is a mistake to maintain that the entry of German troops into Czechoslovakia on 15 March 1939 brought about a change in Britain's policy toward the Reich.
This must be said about Czechoslovakia: in this clumsily cobbled-together country, a minority of Czechs ruled three million Germans as well as Slovaks, Ruthenians, Poles and Hungarians.
All these ethnic splinter groups wanted to rejoin their nations but were brutally prohibited by the Czechs from doing so.
The reason for this was that under the Dictate of Versailles, France was able to pursue a policy of aggrandizing Germany's neighbors so as to have powerful allies in the coming war against Germany.
After Austria had been reunited with the Reich came the problem of annexing the millions of Germans living under Czech rule.
Hitler proposed self-determination, but the Czechs responded with increased repression.
They did everything to provoke Hitler, including a general mobilization on 21 May 1938 to counter an allegedly impending attack by Germany, which was a total fabrication.
Since no attack took place, the Czech as well as French and English press triumphantly announced that their determined military measures had dissuaded Hitler from invasion, which caused the Reich to lose prestige.
The American ambassador in Paris clearly recognized the bellicose character of the Czech mobilization and characterized it in a report to President Roosevelt as a "provocation for another war in Europe."
In order to evaluate the situation the British government sent Lord Runciman to the Sudetenland.
In his report on 16 September 1938 he wrote: "I have great sympathy for the cause of the Sudeten Germans.
It is difficult to be governed by a foreign nation, and my impression is that Czechoslovak rule in the Sudetenland displays such a lack of tact and understanding, and so much petty intolerance and discrimination, that dissatisfaction among the German population must inevitably lead to outrage and rebellion."
Following this the British government joined in urging the Czechs to allow a plebiscite in Sudetenland.
The French government, which had a mutual assistance treaty with Czechoslovakia, did the same, since France was not prepared to go to war with Germany over the Sudetenland.
The Czech Government rejected the suggestion of a plebiscite because this would have served as precedent for other national minorities to demand plebiscites as well.
However, they agreed to relinquish the Sudeten districts without plebiscite since these regions bordering the Reich were populated almost entirely by Germans.
This is how the "Munich Agreement" came about.
It resulted not from threats and extortion by Hitler, but rather an agreement by all parties that the Sudeten Germans rightfully belonged "Heim ins Reich" (back home in the Reich.)
It is important to note that both Britain and Germany agreed to guarantee the borders of Czechoslovakia as soon as its other problems of national minorities were solved.
Neither Hitler nor anyone else guaranteed any national borders, since Czechoslovakia never solved its minority problems.
In March 1939 both the Slovaks and the Ruthenians declared independence, whereupon the Poles invaded Czechoslovakia and occupied the Olsa Region, which was populated by Poles.
The Hungarians did the same, occupying the border areas that were populated by Hungarians.
Since Czechoslovakia had ceased to exist, its President Hacha flew to Berlin on 15 March 1939 and placed the remainder of his country under the protection of the Reich.
He was afraid that Poland and Hungary would follow the Czech example and divide the Czech regions among themselves.
The Reich then formed the Protectorate of Bohemia and Maeren, which provided for exclusive Czech administration in all areas except military and foreign policy.
Hitler was concerned about the threat to German cities and industrial areas that was posed by Czech air bases.
Because it felt betrayed by the Sudeten agreement and the Western powers, Czechoslovakia had adopted close relations with the Soviet Union, which had already stationed 300 airplanes in the Czech regions.
Hitler, who knew that war with the Soviet Union inevitable, could not allow the Czech regions to serve as a staging area and "aircraft carrier" for the Soviet Union.
Hacha remained in office and attended the parade of 20 April 1939 as a guest of the Reich, standing next to Hitler.
It is very clear that Hitler did not violate the Munich accord.