Below are pages 125-134 scanned exactly from the first Leuchter Report published in April 1988.
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Pages 125-126 are the text from the last two pages from a separate DuPont brochure on "Storage and Handling" of hydrogen cyanide.
The last eight pages are the text from the actual DuPont MSDS (materials data safety sheet) for hydrogen cyanide dated 1985, as scanned from pages 127-134 of the first Leuchter Report (April 1988).
STORAGE AND HANDLING -
RUBBER GLOVES - High quality, butyl rubber gloves are recommended to minimize leaks and HCN permeation.
RUBBER SUIT ("Rain Suit" or "Acid Suit") - For work where protection is desired but a full chemical suit is not necessary.
CHEMICAL SUIT - High quality, vapor tight chemical suit which can be used in conjunction with a back-pack air tank and mask or a remote air supply from cylinders. With a mask fed from stationary cylinders, the wearer should also be equipped with a 5-minute escape mask. A safety main should always be in attendance when using a chemical suit.
ESCAPE MASK - For escape use only, with 5-minute air cylinder. To carry in HCN areas with limited exits and for use with air mask and stationary air supply systems.
AIR MASK - For work purposes, frequently used in conjunction with chemical suit, equipped with clearview face piece, speaking diaphragm, demand regulator, 30-minute capacity air cylinder, or air supply hose from stationary cylinders.
TWO-WAY RADIO - To call for help and provide communications in an emergency.
SAFETY SHOWERS - Quick-opening safety showers conveniently located in exposure area.
FUME HOODS - For taking HCN process samples or for laboratory use. An efficient hood with exhaust to a safe area should be provided. (See Fig. 6 on page 21.)
FLARE GUN AND SHELLS - To ignite an HCN spill.
RAILROAD FLARES - With 15 minute burning time. To ignite an HCN spill.
WIND SOCKS - Located so personnel in all parts of the plant can readily determine wind direction to escape upwind or crosswind from HCN fumes.
EMERGENCY ALARM SYSTEM - To alert all plant personnel of an HCN release. Set off by HCN detectors and manual stations.
OTHER MISCELLANEOUS EQUIPMENT needed for safety and emergencies — Stretchers, blankets, emergency power and lights, any special safety equipment, maintenance tools, etc.; must be provided as required by the plant emergency plan.
Precautions in Use
Flammability and Fire Fighting - Hydrogen cyanide is extremely flammable and can be ignited by an open flame, hot surface, or spark. HCN is normally stored and used in closed systems with nitrogen padding. The closed cup flash point of HCN is —17.8°C (0°F); the autoignition temperature is 538°C (1000°F). If HCN is escaping and burning, it is usually best to let it burn, while cooling the container with water. HCN combustion products, CO2, N2 and H2O have very low toxicity. Cool surrounding equipment with water, while the HCN continues to burn. Quench waters should be contained and detoxified with a dilute solution of calcium or sodium hypochlorite.
Explosion Hazard in Air - Explosive limits of HCN in air are 6% to 41 % by volume. In closed containers above 4°C (39.2°F) the vapor pressure of HCN produces an atmosphere greater than the 41% upper explosive limit, thus minimizing the danger of explosion within the container. Optimum storage temperatures of 5-8°C (41-46.4°F), rather than lower temperatures, minimize explosion hazards. However, outside of closed containers, HCN is likely to form flammable mixtures because of its high volatility. Hydrogen cyanide vapors are slightly lighter than air, having a relative density of about 0.95.
Exothermic Reactions Under Alkaline or Heated Conditions - Addition of alkaline chemicals to hydrogen cyanide, such as NaCN, NaOH, NH3, Ca(OH)2, and Na2C03, must be avoided. Alkalis promote polymerization and induce decomposition. Ammonia, a by-product of the decomposition, and heat released from the exothermic reaction induce further polymerization, and the reaction becomes autocatalytic and may cause an explosion. Polymerization/decomposition can also start from water and/or from heat. Polymerization rates increase much more rapidly if alkalinity or temperature is increased.
Exothermic Reactions Under Acidic Conditions - Although small quantities of acids and acid-forming compounds are used as stabilizers for hydrogen cyanide, the addition of large quantities of strong, concentrated acid, (over 15% by weight of concentrated sulfuric acid) can cause rapid decomposition with a large heat release. In a closed container this can cause an explosion if the temperature is not controlled. Unless adequate precautions
E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co. (Inc.) Wilmington, Delaware 19898
U.S. Sales and Services
For placing orders or requesting additional product information, please use our convenient 24-hour toll-free telephone number. If you prefer, you can write to us.
Toll free in continental U.S. (except Delaware) (800)441-9442
In Delaware (302) 774-2099
E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co. (Inc.) Chemicals and Pigments Dept Customer Service Center Wilmington, DE 19898
International Sales Offices
Du Pont Canada Inc.
Montreal S, P.Q. H3C 2V1 (514) 861-3861
Du Pont Canada Inc.
P.O. Box 2300 Streetsville Postal Station Mississauga, Ontario L5M 2J4 (416) 821-5570
E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co. (Inc.) Chemicals and Pigments Dept Latin America Sales Office Brandywine Building Wilmington, DE 19898 (302) 774-3403
Du Pont de Nemours International SA
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Du Pont Far East Inc.
Maxwell Road P.O. Box 3140 Singapore 9051 273-2244
MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET
HCN; Hydrocyanic Acid;
NIOSH Registry No. MW6825000
MANUFACTURER/DISTRIBUTOR See Last Page E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co. (Inc.)
Wilmington, DE 19898
CHEMICAL FAMILY Cyanide
CAS REGISTRY NO.
PRODUCT INFORMATION Phone (800) 441-9442 Medical Emergency Phone (800) 441-3637
TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY PHONE Du Pont Cyanide HOTLINE (For emergencies ONLY)
(901) 357-1546 CHEMTREC (800) 424-9300
MELTING POINT -13.2°C (8.2°F)
VAPOR PRESSURE 750 mm Hg at 25°C (77°F)
1200 mm Hg at 38°C (100°F)
SOLUBILITY IN H20 100%
EVAPORATION RATE (BUTYL ACETATE=1)
E-73318 Date: 8/85
BOILING POINT, 760 mm HG. 25.7°C (78.3°F)
SPECIFIC GRAVITY 0.69 at 18°C (64°F)
VAPOR DENSITY 0.947 (Air=1)
Acidic; stabilized with acid
Colorless to slightly bluish
Unstable with heat, alkaline materials, and water (see Polymerization below). D0 NOT STORE WET HCN. May react violently with strong mineral acids. Experience shows mixtures with about 20% or more sulfuric acid will explode. Effects with other acids are unknown, so any such mixtures should be considered potentially explosive.
INCOMPATIBILITY See Instability and Polymerization.
Can occur violently in the presence of heat, alkaline materials, or moisture. Once initiated, polymerization becomes uncontrollable since the reaction is autocatalytic, producing heat and alkalinity (NH3). Confined polymerization can cause a violent explosion.
FLASH POINT -18°C (0°F)
AUTOIGNITION TEMPERATURE 538°C (1000°F)
AUTODECOMPOSITION TEMPERATURE See Polymerization
FIRE AND EXPLOSION HAZARDS Extremely flammable.
EXTINGUISHING MEDIA Allow escaping HCN to burn, if practical. Since HCN is highly toxic, it is usually safer to let it burn to non-toxic CO2 and N2. If necessary, water may be used to extinguish fires.
FLAMMABLE LIMITS IN AIR, % BY VOL. LOWER 6 UPPER 41
APPROXIMATE % 100%
Bitter almond - very mild, non-irritat1ng
FIRE AND EXPLOSION DATA
SPECIAL FIRE FIGHTING INSTRUCTIONS
Cool tanks with water to avoid violent polymerization/decomposition, but allow escaping HCN to burn if practical. Stay upwind. Consider downwind evacuation. Wear chemical suit with breathing air supply; avoid contact with liquid or vapor. If HCN is escaping, quench waters should be contained and detoxified with a dilute calcium or sodium hypochlorite solution.
PRINCIPAL HEALTH HAZARDS (Including Significant Routes, Effects, Symptoms of Over-Exposure, and Medical Conditions Aggravated by Exposure)
May be fatal if inhaled, swallowed, or absorbed through the skin.
Extremely hazardous liquid and vapor under pressure.
Inhalation 5 minutes LC50: 484 ppm in rats
Oral ALD: 10 mg/kg in rats
Hydrogen Cyanide is a fast acting, highly poisonous material. Toxic effects described in animals from exposure include asphyxia, dyspnea, ataxia, tremors, coma, and cardiac abnormalities. Tests in animals demonstrate no carcinogenic activity.
Human health effects of overexposure may initially include: nonspecific
discomfort, such as nausea, headache, dizziness, vomiting, and weakness. Higher exposures may lead to these effects: rapid respiration; lowered
blood pressure; unconsciousness; and fatality from overexposure. Evidence suggests that skin permeation can occur in amounts capable of producing the effects of systemic toxicity. There are no reports of human sensitization. Epidemiologic studies do not demonstrate a significant risk of human cancer from exposure to this compound. Individuals with preexisting diseases of the central nervous system may have increased susceptibility to the toxicity of excessive exposures.
HCN is not listed as carcinogenic by IARC, NTP, OSHA, ACGIH or Du Pont.
EXPOSURE LIMITS (PEL (OSHA), TLV (ACGIH), AEL (DU PONT), ETC.)
The OSHA 8-hour Time Weighted Average (TWA) is 10 ppm, 11 mg/m3. The ACGIH TLV® - TWA is 10 ppm, 10 mg/m3 (ACGIH recommends this be used as a celling value). Both OSHA and ACGIH carry a "skin" notation indicating that HCN may penetrate the skin; therefore, control of vapor inhalation alone may not be sufficient to prevent cyanide poisoning. The Du Pont AEL is 10 ppm - 8 hour TWA, 5 ppm - 12 hour TWA.
Emergency pre-planning and training is needed before beginning to work with hydrogen cyanide since prompt treatment is essential in cases of cyanide poisoning. Use HCN detectors and have Cyanide Antidote Kits on hand.
HEALTH HAZARD INFORMATION
Do not breathe vapor. Do not get in eyes, on skin, on clothing. Wash thoroughly after handling.
NEVER WORK ALONE-
PERSONS DOING PHYSICAL OPERATING AND MAINTENANCE WORK WITH HCN EQUIPMENT SHOULD USE THE BUDDY SYSTEM AND NEVER WORK ALONE. Always have at least two people on the job, both (all) trained for HCN work. While one performs the task, the other observes from upwind or crosswind, far enough away (20-30 ft; 6-9 m) so that in the event of an HCN release, the observer will not be overcome and can start alarm and rescue procedures. Both should have the same personal safety equipment, and the observer should have a working two way radio or P.A. system for calling help in an emergency. Both should be well trained in cyanide first aid and emergency procedures (refer to the Du Pont Hydrogen Cyanide Storage and Handling bulletin for more information).
FIRST AID AND MEDICAL TREATMENT
Actions to be taken in case of cyanide exposure should be planned and practiced before beginning work with cyanides. In most cases, cyanide poisoning causes a deceptively healthy pink to red skin color; however, if a physical injury or lack of oxygen is involved, the skin color may be bluish.
Treatment for cyanide poisoning can be provided in two ways, "First Aid" and "Medical Treatment". Both require immediate action to prevent further harm or death. First aid using amyl nitrite and oxygen is generally given by a layman before medical help arrives. Medical treatment involves intravenous injections and must be administered by qualified medical personnel. Even if a doctor or nurse is present, the need for fast treatment dictates using first aid treatment with amyl nitrite and oxygen while medical treatment materials for intravenous injection are being prepared. Experience shows that first aid given promptly is usually the only treatment needed.
Medical treatment is given if the victim does not respond to first aid. It provides a larger quantity of antidote including sodium thiosulfate to chemically destroy cyanide in the body. However, even under optimum conditions, amyl nitrite can be administered faster and should be used even if medical treatment follows.
Amyl nitrite and medical treatment kits for cyanide poisoning are available,
with a doctor's prescription, from pharmacies.
A. FIRST AID - DIRECTIONS FOR GIVING AMYL NITRITE ANTIDOTE AND OXYGEN
1. CONSCIOUS: For inhalation and/or absorption if the victim is alert, oxygen may be all that is needed. But if he is not fully conscious or shows signs of poisoning, follow paragraph A-2 next page. For swallowing, see next page paragraph C, FIRST AID - SWALLOWING CYANIDE.
2. UNCONSCIOUS BUT BREATHING: Break an amyl nitrite ampule in a cloth and
hold lightly under the victim's nose for 15 seconds, then take away for
15 seconds. Repeat 5-6 times. If necessary, use a fresh ampule every
3 minutes until the victim regains consciousness (usually 1-4 ampules).
Give oxygen to aid recovery.
3. NOT BREATHING:
a. Give artificial respiration, preferably with an oxygen resuscitator. Give amyl nitrite antidote by placing a broken ampule inside the resuscitator face piece, being careful that the ampule does not enter the victim's mouth and cause choking.
b. If using manual artificial respiration, give amyl nitrite antidote as
in paragraph A-2 above except keep the first amyl nitrite ampule under the nose with replacement every 3 minutes.
4. AMYL NITRITE NOTES:
a. Amyl nitrite is highly volatile and flammable; do not smoke or use around source of ignition.
b. If treating poison victim in a windy or drafty area, provide something - a rag, shirt, wall, drum, cupped hands, etc. - to prevent the amyl nitrite vapors from being blown away. Keep the ampule upwind from the nose. The objective is to get amyl nitrite into the victim's lungs.
c. Rescuers should avoid amyl nitrite inhalation so they won't become dizzy and lose competence.
d. Do not overuse. Amyl nitrite dilates the blood vessels and lowers blood pressure. While excessive use might put the victim in shock, this has not occurred in practice at Du Pont plants and we are not aware of any death from treatment with amyl nitrite. (See next page, paragraph E, MEDICAL TREATMENT).
1. EYE CONTACT: Immediately flush eyes with plenty of water, remove
contaminated clothing, and keep victim quiet and warm. Call a physician.
D. FIRST AID - SKIN OR EYE CONTACT (SKIN ABSORPTION)
1. CONSCIOUS: Immediately give patient one pint of 1% sodium thiosulfate solution (or plain water) by mouth and induce vomiting with finger in throat. Repeat until vomit fluid is clear. Never give anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Call a physician.
2. UNCONSCIOUS: follow first aid procedure as in paragraphs A-2 and A-3
(and/or medical treatment in paragraph E) and call a physician. If the victim revives, then proceed with paragraph C-1.
C. FIRST AID - SWALLOWING CYANIDE
FIRST AID - INHALATION OF CYANIDE
Carry victim to fresh air. Lay victim down. Administer amyl nitrite antidote and oxygen (Paragraph A). Remove contaminated clothing. Keep patient quiet and warm. Call a physician.
2. SKIN CONTACT: Wash skin to remove the cyanide while removing all
contaminated clothing, including shoes. Do not delay. Skin absorption can occur from cyanide dust, solutions, or HCN vapor. Absorption is slower than inhalation, usually measured in minutes compared to seconds for inhalation.
Follow paragraph A if treatment is needed, but even severe skin contact may not require treatment if: 1) no inhalation or swallowing has
occurred and 2) the cyanide is promptly washed from the skin and contaminated clothing removed. If skin contact is prolonged, HCN poisoning may occur with nausea, unconsciousness, and then death possible if source of cyanide intake is not removed and treatment provided. Even
after washing the skin, the victim should be watched for at least 1-2
hours because absorbed cyanide can continue to work into the
bloodstream. Wash clothing before reuse and destroy contaminated shoes.
E. MEDICAL TREATMENT
Medical treatment is normally provided by a physician, but might be provided by a professionally trained "qualified medical person" where a need exists and where state and local laws permit.
While preparing for sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate injections, use amyl nitrite and oxygen as outlined in paragraph A. When ready and if the victim is not responding to first aid, first inject the solution of sodium nitrite (10 mL of a 3% solution) intravenously at the rate of 2.5 mL/minute, then immediately inject the sodium thiosulfate (50 mL of 25% solution) at the same rate, taking care to avoid extravasation.
This is a fairly lengthy treatment (24 minutes) since a total of 10 + 50, or 60 mL is injected at a rate of 2.5 mL/minute. Consideration should be given to the size and condition of the victim as treatment is proceeding. It is not essential that full quantities be given just because treatment was started. Injections can be stopped at any point if recovery is evident.
Watch patient continuously for 24-48 hours if cyanide exposure was severe.
If there is any return of symptoms during this period, repeat this treatment using one-half the amounts of sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate
solutions. Caution should be used to avoid overuse of medical treatment
chemicals as the prescribed dose is about 1/3 the lethal dose for an average individual.
If signs of excessive methemoglobinemia develop (i.e., blue skin and mucous membranes, vomiting, shock and coma), 1% methylene blue solution should be given intravenously. A total dose of 1 to 2 mg/kg of body weight should be
administered over a period of five to ten minutes and should be repeated in
one hour if necessary. In addition, oxygen inhalation will be helpful. Transfusion of whole fresh blood may be considered if there has been mechanical injury with external or internal bleeding and simultaneous cyanide exposure.
Du Pont's experience in treating cyanide poison cases is that first aid procedures using amyl nitrite and oxygen were effective and the only treatment needed in most cases. Medical treatment, using intravenous injections, was used in a few cases. Both procedures have been successful.
GENERALLY APPLICABLE CONTROL MEASURES Use only in closed systems and with ventilation adequate to keep vapor concentrations below exposure limits. Evacuate area immediately if HCN fumes are detected and put on protective clothing before re-entry. Open construction is usually best for HCN processes.
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT Recommended Minimum Protection - chemical splash goggles and rubber gloves (butyl or neoprene preferred). Have available and use as appropriate*:
• Rubber suits and boots
• Full-body chemical suit
• Self-contained breathing air supply
• HCN detector
• First aid and medical treatment supplies. Including oxygen resuscitators.
*This is only a partial list. See Du Pont Hydrogen Cyanide Storage and Handling bulletin for more information.
The compound is extremely toxic (96 hr. LC50 = < 0.5 mg/l). 96 hour LC50,
fathead minnows: 0.157mg/l.
SPILL, LEAK OR RELEASE Stay upwind. Evacuate area until gas has dispersed. Set on fire if conditions warrant. Dike spill. Flush with water spray to waste water treatment system. Wear full protective clothing with breathing air supply. Comply with Federal, State and local regulations on reporting releases.
Comply with Federal, State, and local regulations. Burning will detoxify.
PROPER SHIPPING NAME Hydrogen Cyanide, Anhydrous, Stabilized
PROPER SHIPPING NAME Hydrocyanic Acid, Liquified
HAZARD CLASS Poison A NA NO. 1051
HAZARD CLASS Poison A, 6.1
UN NO. 1051
DOT LABEL(S) Poison Gas Flammable Gas
SUBSIDIARY RISK Flammable Liquid
DOT PLACARD (TT/TC) Poison Gas
FLASH POINT -18°C
ADDITIONAL INFORMATION AND REFERENCES
DATE OF LATEST REVISION/REVIEW: 6/85
PERSON RESPONSIBLE FOR MSDS: J. C. WATTS, Du Pont Co., C&P Dept., Chestnut Run,
Wilmington, DE 19898, (302) 999-4946
HCN in cylinders can be purchased from Fumico Incorporated P. O. Box 3459
Amarillo, Texas 79116 (806) 355-6831
For further information, see Du Pont Hydrogen Cyanide, Storage and Handling bulletin.
REPORTABLE QUANTITY 10 lb/4.54 kg
SHIPPING CONTAINERS Railroad tank cars
Store only high quality, dry, HCN unless careful monitoring is done. Keep away from heat, sparks, and flame and do not contaminate. Keep container closed and use only in a closed system.